Boston Concrete Cutting
288 Grove Street, Unit 110
Braintree, MA 02184


781-519-2456
info@bostonconcretecutting.com
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Concrete Cutting Sawing Brockton MA Mass Massachusetts

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“We Specialize in Cutting Doorways and Windows in Concrete Foundations”

Are You in Brockton Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?

We Are Your Local Concrete Cutter

Call 781-519-2456

We Service Brockton MA and all surrounding Cities & Towns

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If the pressure is computed on this basis, and a factor of safety of 2 is used, it is equivalent to an actual pressure of only one-half the amount (which is more probable), having a factor of 4. If the depth of the earth is quite large compared with the dimensions of the concrete culvert, we may consider that the upward pressure on the bottom, as well as the lateral pressure on the sides, is practically the same as the downward pressure on the top. If the bottom of the concrete culvert is laid on rock, or on soil which is practically unyielding, there will be no necessity of considering that there is any upward pressure on the bottom concrete slab tending to burst that concrete slab upward. The softer the soil, the greater will be the tendency to transverse bending in the bottom concrete slab. Since the design of rectangular concrete box culverts is purely an application of the equations for transverse bending, after the external pressures have been determined, no numerical example will here be given. These structures are not only reinforced with bars, considering the sides as concrete slabs, but should also have bars placed across the corners, which will withstand a tendency of the section to collapse in case the pressure on opposite sides is unequal.

They must also be reinforced with bars running longitudinally with the concrete culvert. As in the other cases of longitudinal reinforcement, no definite design can be made for its amount. A typical cross-section for such a concrete culvert is shown in Fig. 115. The longitudinal bars are indicated in this figure. They are used to prevent cracks owing to expansion or contraction, and also to resist any tendency to rupture which might be caused by a settling or washing-out of the subsoil for any considerable distance under the length of the concrete culvert. The general subject of concrete arches, and especially the application of reinforced concrete to arch construction, are taken up in Part V, and therefore will not be further discussed here. The laws of mechanics, as well as experimental testing on full-sized concrete columns of various structural materials, show that very short concrete columns, or even those whose length is ten times their smallest diameter, will fail by crushing or shearing
 of the material. If the concrete columns are very long, say twenty or more times their smallest diameter, they will probably fail by bending, which will produce an actual tension on the convex side of the concrete column. The line of division between long and short concrete columns is practically very uncertain, owing to the fact that the center line of pressure of a concrete column is frequently more or less eccentric because of irregularity of the bearing surface at top or bottom. Such an eccentric action will cause buckling of the concrete column, even when its length is not very great.

On this account, it is always wise (especially for long concrete columns) to place reinforcing bars within the concrete column. The reinforcing bars consist of longitudinal bars (usually four, and sometimes more with the larger concrete columns), and bands of small bars spaced from 6 to 18 inches apart vertically, which bind together the longitudinal bars. The longitudinal bars are used for the purpose of providing the necessary transverse strength to prevent buckling of the concrete column. As it is practically impossible to develop a satisfactory theory on which to compute the required tensional strength in the convex side of a concrete column of given length, without making assumptions which are themselves of doubtful accuracy, no exact rules for the sizes of the longitudinal bars in a concrete column will be given. The bars ordinarily used vary from I inch square to 1 inch square; and the number is usually four, unless the concrete column is very large (400 square inches or larger) or is rectangular rather than square. It has been claimed by many, that longitudinal bars in a concrete column may actually be a source of danger, since the buckling of the bars outward may tend to disintegrate the concrete column.

Are You in Brockton Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?

We Are Your Local Concrete Cutter

Call 781-519-2456

We Service Brockton MA and all surrounding Cities & Towns

Boston Concrete Cutting | 288 Grove Street, Unit 110, Braintree, MA 02184 | 781-519-2456 | info@bostonconcretecutting.com